From our Project Rehabilitation of facilities to earthquake affected people (REAP), we realized vulnerable population the elderly people, single men-women, orphans with less economic capacities, are more prone to observe the housing grants. They are unable to build their house on their own, unable to extend physical and financial contribution in the reconstruction of their own house. This brings another dilemma the construction groups (mercenary construction groups) do not trust such vulnerable groups, as a result they remain to start reconstructing their house and unable to access the government housing grants without any progress of the house reconstruction.
The level of scientific and engineering research does indicate that resilience is not only due to materials one chose, it’s the technology and engineering codes to be followed. Many engineers focusing on earthquake safety strive to use local materials, however the Nepali case appeared bit different, the engineers learn modern construction materials and try to apply without much innovation on use of local materials, it was evident from the catalogue of house designs distributed by DUDBC after the 2015 earthquake. The social stigma (elite and rich opting for modern construction materials) and officials recommending for modern construction materials through different catalogues brings another negative fold in rural Nepali housing. The use of traditional materials (wood and stone) and traditional architecture that were the part of rural houses are being replaced by concrete, turning the serenity to concrete jungles which was not the case prior to 2015 earthquake. Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal for 2014/2015 indicates 40.6% of houses in the country constructed were out of stone and wood.
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